111: The Biblical Festival Calendar: Part 2

New Moons in Ancient Israel

1 Samuel 20:5 And David said to Jonathan, Behold, the new moon is tomorrow. And sitting I should certainly sit with the king to eat. And you shall send me away, and I shall be hidden in the field until the third evening.

1 Samuel  20:18 And Jonathan said to him, Tomorrow is the new moon, and you shall be expected, for your seat will be empty.

1 Samuel 20:24 And David was hidden in the field. And it was the new moon. And the king sat down by the food to eat.

We see here that David and the Israelites kept the observance of the New Moons as God had commanded.

Now let’s look at the book of Kings where we well see a scripture that indicates that on the “New Moons” the people went to listen and speak with the spiritual leaders of the day, much like you would do on the Sabbath.

A woman that had been kind to Elisha by feeding him and building a room for him, was in distress because of her sons recent death. Because of this tragedy she went to find and seek help from Elisha.

Notice here what her husband says to her as she leaves…

2 Kings 4:23 And he said, Why are you going to him today; it is neither new moon nor Sabbath? And she said, Peace.

They would get together with the prophet of God, to learn from him on the New Moons just as they did on the Sabbath!  It is clear to see that Israel was observing the New Moons!

Amos speaks of those sitting at the new moon gathering and wishing they were not there worshipping God; folks who would rather be going about their own ways than worshipping God on Sabbath and New Moons.  This is the same as people sitting at Passover and wishing it was over so that they could do their own thing instead of obeying and worshipping God. – Amos 8:5

Solomon followed God’s New Moon commands

2 Chronicles  8:12-13 Then Solomon offered burnt offerings to YHVH on the altar of Jehovah that he had built before the porch, 8:13 even as the matter of every day required, offering according to the commandment of Moses, on the Sabbaths, and on the new moons, and on the appointed feasts three times in the year, in the Feast of Unleavened Bread, and in the Feast of Weeks, and in the Feast of Booths.

God commanded Moses to order worship and sacrifices on the New Moons, much like in the Sabbaths and Holy Days!

From this we can also begin to see how much emphasis God puts on the New Moons…they are a very important thing to be observed!

1 Chronicles  23:27-32 For by the last words of David the Levites were numbered from a son of twenty years and above, 23:28 because their office was to wait on the sons of Aaron for the service of the house of YHVH, in the courts, and in the chambers, and in the purifying of all holy things, and the work of the service of God’s house, 23:29 both for the Bread of Arrangement, and for the fine flour for food offering, and for the unleavened cakes, and for the pan, and for what is soaked in oil, and for every measure and size, 23:30 and to stand every morning to thank and praise YHVH, and likewise at evening. 23:31 And they were to offer all burnt sacrifices to YHVH in the Sabbath, in the new moons, and on the set feasts, by number, according to the order commanded to them, continually before the face of YHVH, 23:32 and that they should keep the charge of the tabernacle of the congregation, and the charge of the Holy Place, and the charge of Aaron’s sons, their brothers, in the service of the house of YHVH.

This scripture says that David set the order of the Levites to serve and offer sacrifices to God on His Holy Days and Sabbaths and NEW MOONS

Even Solomon when he was about to build the Temple said that the reason for the Temple was so that people could come and worship God in the appointed times, including the New Moons!!

2 Chronicles 2:4 behold, I am building a house to the name of YHVH my God, to dedicate to Him, to burn incense of sweet spices before Him, and for the continual Bread of Arrangement, and for burnt offerings morning and evening, on the Sabbath, and on the new moons, and at the set feasts of YHVH our God. This shall be upon Israel forever.

The New Moons are a commanded observance forever for all the people of God!

King Hezekiah Restoration

2 Chronicles 31:3 And the king’s portion from his substance was for burnt offerings, for burnt offerings of the morning and the evening; and the burnt offerings of the Sabbaths, and of the new moons, and of the appointed seasons, as it was written in the Law of YHVH.

And after Israel had gone astray, King Hezekiah restored the sacrifices in a great revival on the New Moons as Moses ordered Israel to do befor God!

The Ezra Restoration…

And Ezra, when Israel came out of Captivity,  made it a point to continue to offer God His sacrifices and to keep the appointed worship times of God!

Ezra 3:2-5 Then Jeshua the son of Jozadak stood up, and his brothers the priests, and Zerubbabel the son of Shealtiel, and his brothers, and built the altar of the God of Israel in order to offer burnt offerings on it, as it is written in the Law of Moses the man of God. 3:3 And they set the altar on its bases, for fear was on them because of the people of those lands. And he offered burnt offerings on it to Jehovah, burnt offerings morning and evening. 3:4 They also performed the Feast of Booths, as it is written, and the burnt offerings by number, days by days, according to the ordinance, the thing of days in its day. 3:5 And afterward the continual burnt offering, both of the new moons, and of all the set feasts of Jehovah that were set apart, and of everyone who willingly offered a freewill offering to YHVH.

The Nehemiah Restoration

Nehemiah restored the service to God on the Holy Days and the proper keeping of the Sabbath and the New Moons, and tithing!

Nehemiah 10:31-33 And if the people of the land should bring goods or any food to sell on the Sabbath, we would not take from them on the Sabbath, or on the holy day. And they would forgo the seventh year, and the interest of every hand. 31:32 Also, we made stand on ourselves, to charge ourselves yearly with the third part of a shekel for the service of the house of our God, 31:33 for the Bread of Arrangement, and for the continual food offering, and for the continual burnt offering, of the Sabbaths, of the new moons, for the set feasts, and for the holy things, and for the sin offerings to make atonement for Israel, and all the work of the house of God.

These godly  people were deeply concerned about keeping of the Law and restoring it back to what would please God… and this included the keeping of the New Moon

Whenever there was a spiritual revival in Israel the observance of God’s commanded new moon days was restored.

Without any doubt we are in need of a spiritual revival today: What is stopping us from doing the same?

When we pull away from God – God pulls away from us!

Our own worship, doing things our own way;  made the people’s worship a stench in His nostrils. He considered it nothing more than mere lip service! Serving him according to the commandments of men; instead of doing what he had commanded.

Is this what is happening to us, His people, today? Is the right worship of God lost today? Will He abhor our worship according to our own ways: or will he accept us as we seek to please him by doing what is right in His eyes??

Isaiah 1:12-14 At whose command do you come before me, making my house unclean with your feet? 12:13 Give me no more false offerings; the smoke of burning flesh is disgusting to me, so are your new moons and Sabbaths and your holy meetings. 12:14 Your new moons and your regular feasts are a grief to my soul: they are a weight in my spirit; I am crushed under them.

Hosea. 2:11 I will also cause all her mirth to cease, her feast days, her new moons, and her Sabbaths, and all her solemn feasts.

The people of God were worshiping God in the keeping of the New Moon as told to us by Paul in the New Testament, and by David, by Hezekiah, by Ezra, Nehemiah, Elisha, Ezekiel, Amos, Saul, Jonathan, and by God through Moses.

We can see that they did meet together and worshipped God learning of Him, they came to meet the religious authorities of the land, they broke bread together, they sacrificed, it seems clear that God is showing us that he expects us to keep His New Moons in acknowledgment of him as Creator and Moral Authority over man.

What are we to do??

It is very clear from scriptures that we need a great spiritual revival in the Ekklesia today and that a part of that spiritual revival is the restoration of observing the New Moons as Appointed Times with Bible Study Worship Services!  

When there is no physical Temple there can be no physical sacrifices, yet we can still acknowledge the sovereignty of Almighty God and dedicate ourselves to him, learning of God and His Word, on God’s Commanded and Appointed New Moon days!  And once the Eternal chose Jerusalem we are to establish the first light of the new moon from Jerusalem as well as establish the beginning of the new year from Jerusalem!  

This has been made possible today with worldwide communications and as part of the preparation for the coming of Messiah the Christ, God is turning his people to once again look to Jerusalem the city of the King of kings!

The scripture is clear, God said to use the light and not the darkness of the moon to begin His months! Going by this instruction from God – we would have to conclude that the first sliver of light at Jerusalem would be the beginning of the new lunar month and that day would be the New Moon.

Another analogy to consider…

Jesus Christ is the light of the world and He is represented as such, while Satan is darkness and he is represented as such. Would God use the LIGHT to determine the beginning of this special day or would he use darkness?

The scriptures do not give us the right to change the calendar of God. And God never, ever, told man to change what He has ordained!

The New Moon is not a Sabbath or a Holy Day.

If every New Moon Day is a Sabbath, why do we find God commanding labor upon the day, and labor being exacted upon the day?

And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, On the first day of the first month shalt thou set up the tabernacle of the tent of the congregation. … Thus did Moses: according to all that the LORD commanded him, so did he. And it came to pass in the first month in the second year, on the first day of the month, that the tabernacle was reared up. (Exodus 40:1,2,16,17 — read all of Exodus 40:1-33 to see how much labor was done this New Moon Day)

The New Moon is NOT a Sabbath unless it happens to fall on a Sabbath. The New Moon is NOT a Holy Day except for the first day of the Seventh Month.

The New Moon is merely the consecrating of the beginning of each month with Bible Studies [worship services] and during the Temple period with special sacrifices by God’s command.

New Moons are to be observed by family or local congregational Bible Studies, and  they will be observed as days of worship [yet NOT Holy Days or Sabbaths just the consecration of the beginning of each month] in the Kingdom of God.

Observing the first visible light as seen from Jerusalem to begin ecclesiastical months is essential to a proper understanding of the Biblical Calendar; and the consecrating of the months and Biblical Holy days in the Biblical Calendar.

The importance of the New Moons lies in the fact that they are essential elements in determining ALL of the commanded Holy Days; except for the Sabbath. That is why God has set them apart for special recognition without calling them actual Holy Days.

They are the foundation of God’s Calendar and they are the foundation for properly dating the actual commanded Holy Days! We should get in the habit now!

God calls His people to come to him and learn of him every seventh day on the weekly Sabbath, he also calls people to come before Him on the New Moons and on various Annual Festivals and Appointed Times. 

God calls people to appear before him on the New Moons, on the head of every month; to acknowledge God as creator of all things and to sanctify the whole month and set it apart to godliness.  We are to appear before God to acknowledge Him as our God, King, Head and Sovereign, and to rededicate ourselves to godliness! 

The two silver trumpets were sounded in the temple over the special sacrifices offered by the high priest on behalf of the whole people; calling on God to remember His people and to accept the sacrifices offered on behalf of the whole people; as a type of calling on God the Father to accept the sacrifice of Jesus Christ the Lamb of God for all people in future.

The shofar are sounded in every city and town across the land in great rejoicing over the mercy of our mighty LORD in redeeming the people by giving his life for us. 

Rejoice with the Shofar on God’s sanctified New Moon Day


Setting the Biblical New Year

Remember that this is still the subject of God’s Biblical Calendar, the history of the modern Rabbinic Calendar is the subject of the next lesson. 

Since creation until Israel left Egypt the new year began in the autumn, Then in Egypt God commanded those called out of Egypt to begin their year in the spring.  

This change of the beginning of the year was to separate Israel from the rest of the world as an allegory of a small early Spring Harvest of those called out of bondage to sin in our time, pictured by the Spring Festivals; and another main harvest of humanity in future pictured by the Fall Festivals.   Full details are provided in the Spring Festivals and Fall Festivals studies.

God set the new year in Egypt to begin with the Passover month in which Israel came out from Egypt.  Since then the biblical new year begins with the same month [in the same season of the year] that God established in Egypt. 

Later the command regarding the Wave Offering – once they began to cultivate the promised land – came into play, and gave us a firm starting point from that time on.  The things necessary to establish the first month of the year are the birth of the spring lambs and the ripening of the barley harvest in the immediate vicinity of Jerusalem. 

Originally there were 12 thirty day months in a solar year, this changed later and they had to begin to intercalate ta thirteenth month every few years o keep the months in line with the solar year and the first month in line with the spring lambing and the barley harvest.

Early civilizations around the world used calendars with months of 30 days and years of 360 days until sometime in the 8th century B.C., when suddenly it became necessary to change them. Then most civilizations around the world began to modify their calendars to allow for 5 extra days for the year and 6 fewer days for a lunar year of 12 full months; a modern lunar year is 354 days (12 months x 29.5 days).

The number of days in a year change was marked by the second King of Rome, Numa Pompilius, and by his Jewish contemporary, King Hezekiah. Later other civilizations adopted the new 365 day year as well. These events are often linked with the shadow on the sundial going back 10 degrees in the days of Hezekiah around 700-750 BC.

There was a change in the number of days in a solar year and in the lunar month as well, in about the 8th century B.C.; which then necessitated the intercalation of a 13th month every so often to keep the lunar year in line with the seasons and the solar year, about the time of Hezekiah which after that would have continued to be needed in the days of Jesus Christ and is still needed today. 

After that time the Sanhedrin began to set the new moons at Jerusalem and also set the new year from Jerusalem by the lambing and the state of the barley harvest. 

They did not go searching across the nation looking for maturing barley but set the new year by the barley in the immediate vicinity of Jerusalem, where it would be cut when the nation was already gathered at Jerusalem for the Passover and the Feast of Unleavened Bread.

Deuteronomy 16:16 Three times in a year shall all thy males appear before the Lord thy God in the place which he shall choose; in the feast of unleavened bread, and in the feast of weeks, and in the feast of tabernacles:

God commanded that when Israel entered the land and began to cultivate the land,  that they should cut and bring the first sheaf of the spring barley harvest to present to God BEFORE they began the general harvest. 

This was to be a sheaf of THEIR harvest, because of the meaning of this spring harvest; to be studied in the Spring Festivals study.  It is for this reason that this first sheaf was required to be from the harvest cultivated by Israel, and not from the harvests of the Canaanites  [which were symbolic of people not being faithful and submissive to God].  

Today many search for “wild barley.”   This is a somewhat confusing misnomer as today’s so called “wild barley” is descended from the ancient cultivated barley without the modern artificial genetic changes.  It is quite right to seek out this ancient barley for biblical purposes today.

God commanded:

Leviticus  23:10 Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them, When ye be come into the land which I give unto you, and shall reap the harvest thereof, then ye [the nation] shall bring a [one] sheaf of the firstfruits of your [the collective national harvest] harvest unto the priest: 23:11 And he shall wave the sheaf before the LORD, to be accepted for you: on the morrow after the sabbath the priest shall wave it.

The term “ye shall” here does not mean that every individual should cut a sheaf to bring to the priest, but that ONE sheaf should be cut from the collective nation of Israel and brought to the priest; otherwise the priest would have to lift up thousands of sheaves and the symbology of one first sheaf beginning the whole harvest would be lost.  This was always understood by the priests and in no case was there ever more than ONE sheaf lifted up to God.

The first sheaf represented the acceptance of the resurrected Lamb of God, by God the Father, as the first of the harvest of the early harvest of first fruits.  

This was  because there would be NO spiritual harvest and resurrection of men to spirit unless the First Sheaf, the Lamb of God was sacrificed for sin and was resurrected after a perfect sinless life – which took place at Jerusalem – and that Lamb of God was accepted by God the Father as the ONLY Mediator, Intercessor and spiritual High Priest forever; to effect reconciliation between sinners and God the Father in heaven.

Leviticus 23;11  And he shall wave the sheaf before the LORD, to be accepted for you: on the morrow after the sabbath the priest shall wave it. 

History tells us that Joshua took seven years to conquer the land and it took another seven years to divide the land to all the families of Israel by lot and after that, when Israel began to cultivate the land, a First Sheaf of the harvest was cut on the day after the Sabbath on a Sunday and was then waved before the LORD on that same Sunday. 

Israel did fall away many times, but when they kept the Word of God they always cut the Wave Sheaf at the very beginning of Sunday immediately after sunset ending the Sabbath and beginning Sunday, and then processed the grain overnight, lifting it up to they LOIRD after the morning Daily Sacrifice. 

In the wilderness God commanded that when they entered the land they were to cut the first sheaf of the spring harvest and the Rabbins interpreted this in the Mishnah to mean that the Sheaf could be cut anywhere in Palestine: However once the Temple was built at Jerusalem this command for cutting the Wave Sheaf was qualified by God’s command to appear before him at Jerusalem for the Festivals. 

All able bodied persons were commanded to present themselves before God and to observe the Feasts in the place that God should choose and all being present at the place that God chose; the Wave Sheaf – which was cut during the Spring Feast – would be cut at that same place as well. 

All Israel was to appear wherever the Tabernacle was, because God dwelt in the Tabernacle and the Tabernacle was movable. 

Then in latter times the Ark was moved to Jerusalem by David when God revealed that God had chosen Jerusalem as the place of God’s name or presence, and finally when Solomon completed the Temple and God placed His name in that Temple (2 Chron 12:16), the people were to come to that Temple to seek God during the Feasts of the LORD.

Once the Temple was built, God commanded every able bodied person to appear before him at the Temple for the Feast, and if the people obeyed God’s command, they would all be at the Temple at Jerusalem during the Feast; and it is self evident that the Wave Sheaf would have to be cut there, because all the people were already gathered there. 

The point is that the Wave Sheaf was not cut many miles away but was cut in the immediate vicinity of the tabernacle and waved on the same day that it was cut.  Later when the Ark was moved to the temple mount the ceremony and the cutting was also moved to Jerusalem, where God had chosen to dwell and to place his name. 

God has commanded that all Israel assemble before him at Jerusalem for Passover and the ULB Feast.   That is the LAW and it means that the sheaf must be cut at Jerusalem where  all the people were gathered; and anyone not gathered at Jerusalem was not keeping the commandments, therefore it was unlawful to cut the Wave Sheaf anywhere else after God chose the Temple at Jerusalem. 

Deuteronomy 16:16 Three times in a year shall all thy males appear before the Lord thy God in the place which he shall choose; in the feast of unleavened bread, and in the feast of weeks, and in the feast of tabernacles: and they shall not appear before the Lord empty:

Today God is again working to focus the whole world on Jerusalem from which Christ will rule all nations in the near future.

The Wave Sheaf must be cut at Jerusalem and therefore must be ripening at Jerusalem to begin the new year. 

Since Jerusalem at 2,500 feet in elevation is the highest place in Judea and is in the mountains it is the last place for the barley to ripen, meaning that the whole barley harvest would be ripe and ready to be harvested when the barley is ripe at Jerusalem.

The whole nation is commanded to gather at Jerusalem from Passover through the following seven day Feast of ULB and the Sheaf would have to be cut at Jerusalem, because that was where the people were already gathered before God.

Repeated for emphasis;  The whole nation was to be present at Jerusalem for this seven Day Feast [plus an eighth day of Passover]  and so the first sheaf would of necessity have to be cut at Jerusalem;  and there was no need to give a specific command to cut the sheaf at Jerusalem because the people would all be gathered in that place already.

Deuteronomy 16:16 Three times in a year shall all thy males appear before the Lord thy God in the place which he shall choose; in the feast of unleavened bread, and in the feast of weeks, and in the feast of tabernacles: and they shall not appear before the Lord empty:

Deuteronomy 16:5 Thou mayest not sacrifice the passover within any of thy gates, which the Lord thy God giveth thee: 16:6 But at the place which the Lord thy God shall choose to place his name in,

When the barley was ripe at Jerusalem it would also be ripening across the whole land.

Various people and groups have been carrying out Aviv [ripening] barley searches for years.  Overall they have all done an excellent job and are now well experienced in judging the maturing barley. 

It is now time to take the Aviv search to the next level and stop searching for the minimum amount necessary to produce one sheaf for the Wave Offering while neglecting the state of the actual harvest.  

We need to realize that the Wave Sheaf is meant to be the first sheaf of a much larger harvest, and finding enough anomalous barley for one sheaf in some area of Judea while the main harvest is still a month away is not acceptable.  

We can waste much time, money and effort, traveling across the land to get a general impression of the readiness of the whole harvest, or we can simply follow the only correct way and accept God’s command that we are to go up to Jerusalem to keep Passover and the Feast of Unleavened Bread; and assess the ripening barley in the immediate vicinity of Jerusalem where it would have to be cut since all the people would be at that location [where it was invariably cut during the temple period]. 

We also need to keep God’s commandment regarding the Wave Offering concerning the barley, without any extraneous matters like bird migrations or ripening figs [NOTE:  The incident of Jesus and the fig tree was where?  It was in Jerusalem!  Not Beer Sheva etc!] and where did God command that we use this incident to set the new year?

We know that from at least the days of Ezra, the priests were given a plot of land just outside the temple walls a few hundred yards away across the brook Kedron in the Ashes valley.  It was in the sheltered Ashes Valley that the priests cultivated a plot of land for the purpose of cutting a Wave Sheaf for the First Sheaf Offering on the first Sunday during the Feast of Unleavened Bread.  

From God’s revival leader Ezra to the destruction of the temple in c 70 A.D. and throughout the physical life of Jesus Christ; the New Year was always set by the ripening barley in the Ashes valley just across the Kidron from the temple walls!  and Jesus Christ never questioned this or taught anything contrary, indeed he confirmed this method of setting the New Year by accepting it and observing the Festivals by this method throughout his physical life!  

Brethren, what was good for Jesus Christ is good for us!  He set an example that we should follow!

We are to begin the New Year when the lambs are born and the barley is ready to ripen in the immediate vicinity of the Temple in Jerusalem, regardless of the condition of the harvest in Beer Sheva or Sderot or anywhere else; just like Jesus Christ did! 

We are not to set the New Year by the state of the barley in Sderot or Nazareth or anywhere other than Jerusalem; for God has placed his name [temple, headquarters] at Jerusalem!

To emphasize this I want to show how the Wave Offering was actually conducted and demonstrate its meaning, which is lost when one uses a harvest from any area except Jerusalem.

Each Passover the priests would go to the Ashes Valley plot a few hundred yards from the temple and bind out a sheaf with cords, and in 31 A.D. they bound a sheaf just as Messiah was dying on the stake.  Then late on the Sabbath after Passover they would go to the Ashes valley plot and prepare to cut the sheaf.  

In 31 A.D. the First Sheaf was cut from the earth at the beginning of Sunday just after the Sabbath had ended and at the same time that Jesus Christ was resurrected and changed from flesh back to spirit. 

Then Jesus WAITED through until the Wave Offering was lifted up to be accepted by God the Father before he also ascended up to be accepted by God the Father.  This symbolism was perfect being designed by the Creator himself!  but the symbolism would be broken if the sheaf were cut at some distant location and sent to the temple. 

The Wave Sheaf MUST be cut very close to the location where it is to be offered, for the symbolism to be properly fulfilled!  and since the New Year is set when the barley will be ripe enough to be cut; the New Year is to be set from Jerusalem. 

Micah 4:2And many nations shall come, and say, Come, and let us go up to the mountain of the Lord, and to the house of the God of Jacob; and he will teach us of his ways, and we will walk in his paths: for the law shall go forth of Zion, and the word of the Lord from Jerusalem.

The Ashes Valley is at the highest elevation of cultivated land in Israel, and due to that circumstance the barley there is the last to ripen.  This means that when the barley is cut in the Ashes Valley by the priests, the barley harvest in all other areas will also be ripe and ready for harvest and that the national barley harvest can begin. 

On the other hand if one finds a few fields of ripening barley and cuts the First Sheaf from an isolated ripening field the national barley will not be at the ready for harvest after the Wave Sheaf is cut. 

There was a restriction that the sheaf be cut and offered at the place where God’s tabernacle and later Temple was, simply because all the people were commanded to be there. During the tabernacle period there was no restriction on where the tabernacle was set up, the ark could be moved to any place in the land and in fact was set up at Shiloh and later at Jerusalem.

Once the Temple was built, since it was not movable and God had placed his presence there; Jerusalem became a permanent place for the cutting and offering of the Wave Offering as well as making all other offerings.

2 Chronicles 7:12 And the Lord appeared to Solomon by night, and said unto him, I have heard thy prayer, and have chosen this place to myself for an house of sacrifice.

The Wave Offering is included in the sacrifices as a commanded offering during the Feast of Unleavened Bread which was to be observed for seven days in the presence of God which in the temple period was AT JERUSALEM.

Deuteronomy 16:16 Three times in a year shall all thy males appear before the Lord thy God in the place which he shall choose; in the feast of unleavened bread, and in the feast of weeks, and in the feast of tabernacles: and they shall not appear before the Lord empty:

All Israel was gathered at Jerusalem for the seven day Feast of Unleavened Bread [and Passover] during the temple period! Why? Because God’s House was there and they were appearing before God!

Therefore the Sheaf was cut at Jerusalem, [Where else could the sheaf be cut with all Israel gathered at the tabernacle or later at the Temple at Jerusalem?] just as Jesus died and was resurrected at Jerusalem!

Deuteronomy 16:1 Observe the month of Abib, and keep the passover unto the Lord thy God: for in the month of Abib the Lord thy God brought thee forth out of Egypt by night.

16:2 Thou shalt therefore sacrifice the passover unto the Lord thy God, of the flock and the herd, in the place which the Lord shall choose to place his name there.

16:3 Thou shalt eat no leavened bread with it; seven days shalt thou eat unleavened bread therewith, even the bread of affliction; for thou camest forth out of the land of Egypt in haste: that thou mayest remember the day when thou camest forth out of the land of Egypt all the days of thy life.

16:4 And there shall be no leavened bread seen with thee in all thy coast seven days; neither shall there any thing of the flesh, which thou sacrificedst the first day at even, remain all night until the morning.

16:5 Thou mayest not sacrifice the passover within any of thy gates, which the Lord thy God giveth thee:

16:6 But at the place which the Lord thy God shall choose to place his name in, there thou shalt sacrifice the passover at even, at the going down of the sun, at the season that thou camest forth out of Egypt.

The Feast of Unleavened Bread at the tabernacle and later at Jerusalem

16:8 Six days thou shalt eat unleavened bread: and on the seventh day shall be a solemn assembly to the Lord thy God: thou shalt do no work therein.

It is extremely obvious that the Sheaf was to be cut the same day that it was offered as was clearly done in the Temple period [and approved of by Christ] and was commanded to be offered at the House of God at Jerusalem, when the whole nation was gathered there before God; and it was an offering being presented to God to be accepted by God.

Incidental signs 

Of course the harvest ripens in direct relationship to the hours of sunlight and warming of the soil, meaning that the spring barley harvest will always be ripening near the spring equinox except in times of very severe conditions. 

Once the ewe’s have lambed we must look for the ripening barley in the immediate area of Jerusalem, and that timing will be in close proximity to the spring equinox. 

There are those who say that the equinox is a time of pagan celebrations and should be ignored. 

I point out that I am not advocating celebrating the equinox; I am simply saying that God created the equinox as a indicator of the warming sun and the spring when the fields would begin to ripen.  Remember that it was God who commanded that the sun [and moon] be used to set the seasons in Genesis 1:14. 

The only God commanded signs to set the first month of the year is the lambing and the barley ripening at Jerusalem for the Wave Sheaf Offering after Passover.

Remember that the ripening fig tree cursed by Christ was at JERUSALEM not in some other location, showing that the ripening trees and harvest were to be observed at JERUSALEM – after God placed His name there – and not some other place.

The biblical new year begins with the first light of the new moon at Jerusalem when the barley is ripening enough at Jerusalem for the Wave Sheaf to be cut during the Feast of Unleavened Bread at Jerusalem.


The Biblical Calendar Summation: 

  1. Each day ends and a new day begins at sunset local time.  
  2. The Sabbath is the seventh day, Friday evening to Saturday evening; and being a day, begins and ends at sunset.
  3. God’s seventh day Sabbath is a Holy Convocation, meaning that on that day we are to meet with God.  Whenever possible we are to meet with like-minded persons who seek to live by every Word of God; we are not to meet with just anyone to have a social gathering.  The emphasis is on meeting and focusing on Almighty God, to learn and internalize the Word of God; not on a social feel good experience.
  4. Months begin with the first visible light of the New Moon as seen from Jerusalem.
  5. Today the new moons are to be kept by holding congregational Bible Studies and sounding the Shofar sometime before the following sun set ends the new moon day.
  6. The new year begins when the barley is ripening in close proximity to the Temple site in Jerusalem.  
  7. This Biblical Calendar is the calendar by which God’s Appointed Times and High Holy Days are established during the year.  All Holy Days being on specified days of specified months [except the count down to Pentecost] 


Special Situations: 

  1. Because of the extreme hours of sunset in the High Arctic and High Antarctic, it is appropriate to observe the Sabbath at the same time as Jerusalem time in the local time zone, above 55 degrees north or south of 55 degrees south.  All members of each congregation should be in agreement and keeping the Sabbath at the same time
  2. The new year begins when the barley harvest is ripening at Jerusalem and the first sheaf will be ready to be cut on the first Sunday after Passover.
  3. During years of extreme famine when there is no barley harvest; to prevent any one year from lasting longer than it should, the new year should begin on the new moon CLOSEST to the spring equinox. 
  4. If the equinox is exactly midway between two new moons then the later new moon is to begin the new year, because the barley would not normally be ripening at Jerusalem two weeks before the equinox. 

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