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Herbert Armstrong on the Biblical Calendar

 

The Biblical Calendar and even the history of the Rabbinic Calendar is really very simple, but some people try to confuse the brethren with a massive landslide of false statements.  

I teach exactly the same thing on the Calendar as the Radio Church of God and Herbert W Armstrong taught; with one difference.  

Because of a lack of commonly available information 75 years ago, and because much knowledge and understanding was sealed until the end time;  Herbert just assumed that today’s Rabbinic Calendar is the same as the Biblical Calendar and that today’s Rabbinic Calendar was in use in the first century.  

Over those decades much knowledge has been increased and now it is well known that the Biblical and today’s Rabbinic Calendar are NOT the same at all!   This assumption by HWA led him to teach the true Biblical Calendar while using the non biblical Rabbinic Calendar!

Take a look in this post at what HWA had to say and then study the Biblical Calendar and learn the history of today’s Rabbinic Calendar in Monday’s posts at the Biblical Studies site. I am restoring what was known all along and which has become confused in the past.  

Elders and brethren; Prove me right or wrong to your own satisfaction by reading what Herbert actually taught and then study the truth from history and the Word of God in these other articles. 

This post reveals what Herbert Armstrong actually did teach on the Calendar and how he came to use the unbiblical Rabbinic Calendar. 

Introduction:   As everyone should know by now, I do not blindly follow Herbert W Armstrong or the teachings of any man and I get my beliefs directly from the Holy Scriptures.  Nevertheless it is a fact that my teachings on the Biblical Calendar are almost completely consistent with the teachings of HWA on the Calendar subject. 

Readers will find that HWA taught virtually the exact same things that I teach regarding the calendar and that those who claim otherwise do not know what they are talking about. 

People who resist the Biblical Calendar in favor of the Rabbinic Calendar by claiming that HWA did not teach the Biblical Calendar are absolutely WRONG! 

HWA did teach the Biblical Calendar which I have since expanded upon do to advances in knowledge over the past 70 years, but the fundamentals are exactly the same. 

The obvious question then arises:  Since HWA taught the Biblical Calendar why did he decide to use the Rabbinic Calendar?  The answer is simple; not having a presence in Jerusalem to observe the new moons and mistakenly convinced that the modern Rabbinic Calendar was the same as the Biblical Calendar,  he chose to rely on the Rabbinic Calendar. 

Herbert knew the proper Biblical Calendar and was mistakenly convinced that the Rabbins used the Biblical Calendar when they do not.  This resulted in a double minded approach [do to a mistaken belief regarding the Rabbinic Calendar which is still commonly held in the COG today] where HWA knew and taught the Biblical Calendar, while using the apostate Rabbinic Calendar. 

Then over the decades it became an ingrained assumption that the modern Rabbinic Calendar is the same as the Biblical Calendar, when it is not! and it became a deeply entrenched habit to use the modern Rabbinic Calendar, so that today’s leaders and elders now reject the truth to cleave to their false traditions. 

This article presents Herbert Armstrong’s teachings on the Biblical Calendar using the form of a Q & A; asking calendar questions and then answering those questions directly from Herbert’s own writings. 

Here is a link to a site posting past Herbert Armstrong publications 

Disclaimer:  The article below was not authored by me; it was written by a current member of UCG.  I did send a copy to Jorge DeCampos who appears to be a UCG spokesman on the Calendar issue.

An Interview with…

Correction:  Footnote 5 which reads Good News Magazine Feb should read Good News Magazine October.

Herbert W. Armstrong  on the Calendar Issues

By an anonymous UCG member

A Question and Answer Session

Concerning the Calendar of the Bible

Herbert W. Armstrong Taught the Observation Calendar

(A Question & Answer Interview with HWA on the Calendar Issues)

This Paper is formatted  as a Q & A  list of calendar questions which are then answered out of the published material of Herbert W. Armstrong (HWA).

His answers are direct quotes from letters and church literature that he wrote or that he approved to be written on this subject.

Proof of his answers in the correct context of these questions has been fully documented and included in this interview. (Footnotes with links are included following each answer and detailed endnotes with links are on pages 9–13.) These are the most common questions asked concerning a calendar to determine the “Feasts of the LORD.” The following are Herbert W. Armstrong’s answers to these interview questions.

(1) Question for HWA: “Is there evidence from the Bible of a calendar that God intended for us to use?”

Answer from HWA: “The first evidence of God’s calendar is found in Genesis 1:14. The sun and moon are ‘for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and years.’” 1 (footnote & endnote)

The first unit of time revealed in the Bible is the day.” “The day as revealed by God does not begin in the middle of the night but at sunset.” 1 (footnote & endnote) Completing six days of physical creation, God rested on the seventh day of this first week, blessed it and set it apart for holy use. This weekly cycle of six days of labor and a seventh devoted to our spiritual needs has never been broken and continues for us today.” 1 (footnote & endnote)

1 The Good News Magazine March, 1953, Vol. III, No. 3, Article titled, “God’s Sacred Calendar”

(Page 7, 1st column, 3rd and 6th paragraphs), (Page 7, 2nd column, last paragraph)

(2) Question for HWA: “Does the Bible give us information concerning the months and years?”

Answer from HWA: “The Bible YEAR is solar. This is proved by the festivals and holy days.” “… the Bible month is lunar; that is, each month begins with a new moon.” 3 (footnote & endnote) The first month in God’s sacred calendar isn’t January which begins in the middle of a dead winter.” 1 (footnote & endnote)

1 The Good News Magazine March, 1953, Vol. III, No. 3, Article titled, “God’s Sacred Calendar” (Page 8, 1st column, 2nd paragraph),

3 Good News Letter, 1940, Article titled, “How to Figure Passover” (Point 3 or 5th paragraph), (Point 2 or 4th paragraph)

(3) Question for HWA: “When does the first month in God’s sacred calendar begin?”

Answer from HWA: “Concerning the spring month of Nisan or Abib, God said: ‘This month shall be unto you the beginning of months: it shall be the first month of the year to you.’ (Exodus 12:2). The first day of this month—which occurs at the beginning of spring—then would be the first day of the year.” 1 (footnote & endnote)

1 The Good News Magazine March, 1953, Vol. III, No. 3, Article titled, “God’s Sacred Calendar” (Page 7-8, 3rd column, last paragraph)

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(4) Question for HWA: “Where do scriptures instruct how to determine when the month of Abib (or Nisan) is to begin the Biblical year?”

Answer from HWA: “The Passover, for instance, being the 14th day of God’s first month varies from about March 26th to April 22nd over a ten year period.” 1 (footnote & endnote) …Passover ALWAYS comes in the SPRING, at time of the early grain harvest. On the morrow after the Sabbath during Feast of Unleavened Bread, the priest waved the wave-sheaf, and none of the early Spring grain could be used until this was done, Leviticus 23.” 3 (footnote & endnote) The Passover had to be at the time of the early grain harvest for the high priest waves a sheaf of the new grain crop on the morrow after the Sabbath during the Feast of Unleavened Bread. ‘Keep this ordinance in his season from year to year.’ (Ex. 13:10). No other grain could be cut until the wave sheaf was offered. (Check Ex. 23:14-17, Deut. 16:9-16 and Num. 28:2 also.)” 1 (footnote & endnote)

1 The Good News Magazine March, 1953, Vol. III, No. 3, Article titled, “God’s Sacred Calendar” (Page 8, 2nd column, 1st paragraph), (Page 8, 2nd column, 5th paragraph)

3 Good News Letter, 1940, Article titled, “How to Figure Passover” (Point 3 or 5th paragraph)

(5) Question for HWA: “You said earlier that, ‘the Bible month is lunar.’ What does God tell us from scripture about when to begin a Biblical month? In other words, how is the first day of the month specifically established or fixed in time?”

Answer from HWA: “The word month comes from the word moon. In Hebrew the word for month when speaking of the calendar is the same as for new moon or moon.” 1 (footnote & endnote) The terms ‘beginning of the month’ and ‘new moon’ are used interchangeably.” 2 (footnote & endnote) … the Bible month is lunar; that is, each month begins with a new moon.” 3 (footnote & endnote) God’s months begin with the new moon.” 1 (footnote & endnote)

1 The Good News Magazine March, 1953, Vol. III, No. 3, Article titled, “God’s Sacred Calendar” (Page 8, 1st column, 3rd paragraph)

2 “GOD’S SACRED CALENDAR” 1974, Reprint Article (Page 1, 3rd column, 3rd paragraph)

3 Good News Letter, 1940, Article titled, “How to Figure Passover” (Point 2 or 4th paragraph)

(6) Question for HWA: “This is interesting, but how do you prove it from scripture?”

Answer from HWA: “You can prove that each month began with the new moon by comparing Num. 28:11 with I Chronicles 23:31. In every instance the monthly offerings were made on the day of the new moon.” 1 (footnote & endnote)

Proof that the new moon begins the month is found by comparing Psalms 81:3 and I Chronicles 23:31 with Numbers 10:10; 28:11; 29:1 and Leviticus 23:24. The terms ‘beginning of the month’ and ‘new moon’ are used interchangeably.” 2 (footnote & endnote)

By studying Numbers 28 and 29, we learn offerings were held DAILY (verses 3-4), WEEKLY on every Sabbath (verse 9), MONTHLY on the 1st day of each month (verse 11), and YEARLY on the annual holy days (verse 16 and on through chapter 29). Compare with I Chronicles 23:31; II Chronicles 2:4; 8:13; 31:3; etc., where the same sacrifices and meat and drink offerings are mentioned, and in each case the MONTHLY offerings are on the NEW MOON. Since Numbers 28:11 says this is in the ‘beginnings of your months,’ or the first day of each month, we have Bible proof the 1st day of each

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month is calculated by the New Moon.” “PROOF the Bible month is lunar; that is, each month begins with a new moon.” 3 (footnote & endnote)

1 The Good News Magazine March, 1953, Vol. III, No. 3, Article titled, “God’s Sacred Calendar” (Page 8, 1st column, 4th paragraph)

2 “GOD’S SACRED CALENDAR” 1974, Reprint Article (Page 1, 3rd column, 3rd paragraph)

3 Good News Letter, 1940, Article titled, “How to Figure Passover” (Point 2 or 4th paragraph)

(7) Question for HWA: “How many months are in the Biblical calendar?”

Answer from HWA: “The Bible YEAR is solar. This is proved by the festivals and holy days. A month is between 29 and 30 days. A 12-month year, or lunar year, is approximately 354 days, whereas a solar year is a little more than 365 days. Thus a lunar year is about 11 days less than a solar year. If the Bible year were lunar, always 12 new moons, Passover would come about 11 days earlier each year. Thus, in about nine years it would come in the MIDWINTER; in another 9 in the FALL, and a few years later Passover would come in the SUMMER.” 3 (footnote & endnote)

Note Lev. 23:4, ‘These are the feasts of the LORD, even holy convocations, which ye shall proclaim in their seasons.’ They could not be allowed to wander through the seasons.” 4 (footnote & endnote)

These facts prove there had to be an intercalary, or 13th, month ADDED to the year … the ONLY POSSIBLE METHOD by which months can begin on new moons, and yet the solar year can be retained, is to add a 13th month every two or three years.” 3 (footnote & endnote)

To keep the month in accord with the year, God intended that a 13th month be added in certain years.” 3 (footnote & endnote)

3 Good News Letter, 1940, Article titled, “How to Figure Passover” (Point 3 or 5th paragraph), (Point 4 or 6th paragraph)

4 The Good News Magazine February, 1957, Vol. VI, No. 2, Article titled, “Which is the Calendar Christ Used?” (Page 5, 3rd column, 5th paragraph)

(8) Question for HWA: “There is a great deal of confusion concerning the ‘new moon’ subject. The dictionary has two different definitions for ‘new moon.’ One refers to the lunar conjunction or astronomical ‘new moon’ (Gregorian wall calendars and almanacs list this one), and the other refers to the first visible faint crescent ‘new moon.’ Some even believe that the ‘new moon’ refers to a calculated ‘lunar average’ moment in time called the molad. Which ‘new moon’ does God want us to use?” (Note: CoGWA and UCG do NOT teach that the first faint crescent is the “new moon.”)

Answer from HWA: “Each new month begins with the discovery of the crescent of a new moon in the western sky just after sundown….” “The observation of this first faint crescent of the new moon just after sundown….” 4 (footnote & endnote)

Is the new moon noted on the Roman calendar or in an almanac or astronomy book the same term as the new moon on God’s Sacred Calendar? Not at all. The term “new moon” from these secular sources refers to the conjunction (or molad) of the sun and moon rather than the visible crescent….” 5 (footnote & endnote)

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The astronomer’s “new moon” is the moment an eclipse of the sun might occur. (The moon is usually above or below the sun rather than in front of it. Thus eclipses do not occur at each of these “new moons”.) But remember that this conjunction occurs at least 6 hours before any observer anywhere can see the new moon crescent with his eyes.” 5 (footnote & endnote)

We visually recognize the beginning of a new month by the first, thin crescent in the western sky just after sunset.” 7 (footnote & endnote) The astronomical new moon calculated for the United States is, in general, a day or two earlier.” 8 (footnote & endnote)

GOD’S MONTHS begin with the new moon. Yet because of certain special considerations they may begin a day or so later than the astronomical ‘new moon’ noted on many of our calendars today.” 4 (footnote & endnote)

4 The Good News Magazine February, 1957, Vol. VI, No. 2, Article titled, “Which is the Calendar Christ Used?” (Page 5, 2nd column, 3rd & 1st paragraphs), (Page 5, 1st column, last paragraph)

5 The Good News Magazine February, 1957, Vol. VI, No. 10, Article titled, “Prove God’s CALENDAR Correct!” (Page 6, 2nd column, 7th & 8th paragraphs)

7 The Good News Magazine February, 1982, Vol. XXIX, No. 2, Q & A Section, “What is a new moon? .…” (Page 13, 1st column, 3rd paragraph)

8 God’s Sacred Calendar ’86-’87, (Worldwide Church of God) (Page 2, 1st column, 2nd paragraph)

(9) Question for HWA: “This ‘first faint crescent’ new moon may be seen at different times and even on different days around the world. Someone may see it in North America a day before those in Europe or Asia. From what location does God want us to observe this ‘first faint crescent’ new moon?”

Answer from HWA: “The observation of the new moon is to be made from Jerusalem, not from the North American continent.” 1 (footnote & endnote) The observation had to be made from Jerusalem….” 4 (footnote & endnote) Jerusalem was always the point from which the new moons were observed and sanctified.” 5 (footnote & endnote)

The seven to ten hours difference in time between Jerusalem and the part of the United States one lives in can make our own observations and estimations as to when we would want to begin a new month somewhat misleading.” 4 (footnote & endnote)

1 The Good News Magazine March, 1953, Vol. III, No. 3, Article titled, “God’s Sacred Calendar” (Page 8, 1st column, 3rd paragraph)

4 The Good News Magazine February, 1957, Vol. VI, No. 2, Article titled, “Which is the Calendar Christ Used?” (Page 5, 2nd column, 1st paragraph)

5 The Good News Magazine February, 1957, Vol. VI, No. 10, Article titled, “Prove God’s CALENDAR Correct!” (Page 5, 2nd column, 7th paragraph)

(10) Question for HWA: “May telescopes, binoculars, or even telescopes with special filters be used to see this ‘first faint crescent’ of the new moon from Jerusalem?”

Answer from HWA: “God had the new moon observed by the naked eye.” 3 (footnote & endnote)

3 Good News Letter, 1940, Article titled, “How to Figure Passover” (Last paragraph)

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(12) Question for HWA: “So, near the beginning of fall, what actually begins the fall Holy Day season?”

Answer from HWA: “When the crescent shape of the moon appears at this time of year, we know it’s the beginning of God’s seventh month.” 6 (footnote & endnote)

6 Youth Bible Lessons, Level 3, 1981, Special Feast Lesson, Fall Festival Edition (Page 2, 1st column, 3rd paragraph)

(13) Question for HWA: “But, the first day of the seventh month is the Feast of Trumpets. So, are you saying the Bible actually commands that the Feast of Trumpets is to fall on the very same day as the new moon?”

Answer from HWA: “Well, when that thin crescent shape called the new moon appears, the first of the fall feasts [Trumpets] has begun!” 6 (footnote & endnote) We visually recognize the beginning of a new month by the first, thin crescent in the western sky just after sunset.” “The Bible commands only one assembly for the Church on a new moon. That is on the Festival of Trumpets, the first day of the seventh month.” 7 (footnote & endnote)

6 Youth Bible Lessons, Level 3, 1981, Special Feast Lesson, Fall Festival Edition (Page 2, 1st column, 4th paragraph)

7 The Good News Magazine February, 1982, Vol. XXIX, No. 2, Q & A Section, “What is a new moon? .…” (Page 13, 1st column, 3rd & last paragraphs)

(14) Question for HWA: “You have mentioned this before, but could you elaborate a little more on how many days are in God’s months?”

Answer from HWA: “The months God gave average approximately 29½ days….” 4 (footnote & endnote) To solve this, one calendar month in general has 30 days, the next 29.” 4 (footnote & endnote) Each new month begins with the discovery of the crescent of a new moon in the western sky just after sundown following the 29th or 30th day of a preceding month.” 4 (footnote & endnote)

4 The Good News Magazine February, 1957, Vol. VI, No. 2, Article titled, “Which is the Calendar Christ Used?” (Page 5, 2nd column, 7th paragraph), (Page 5, 3rd column, 3rd paragraph), (Page 5, 2nd column, 3rd paragraph)

(15) Question for HWA: “Since a month has either 29 or 30 days, what happens if there are clouds and the crescent of a new moon cannot be seen at the end of the 29th day? In other words, it can’t be seen from Jerusalem, but it may be seen in other locations on either side of Jerusalem. What are God’s instructions concerning this situation?”

Answer from HWA: “What are God’s instructions? If the people of Jerusalem, where God’s permanent headquarters are to be, cannot see this crescent of the moon following sunset, then the entire world east and west of that city must delay beginning the month till the following sunset.” 5 (footnote & endnote)

5 The Good News Magazine February, 1957, Vol. VI, No. 10, Article titled, “Prove God’s CALENDAR Correct!” (Page 6, 1st column, 5th paragraph)

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(16) Question for HWA: “But we won’t know ahead of time whether there will be clouds over Jerusalem. This is crazy! There is no way this will work! How will we plan for a Holy Day, such as the Feast of Trumpets, which is commanded to be on the very same day as the new moon?”

Answer from HWA: “What are God’s instructions? If the people of Jerusalem, where God’s permanent headquarters are to be, cannot see this crescent of the moon following sunset, then the entire world east and west of that city must delay beginning the month till the following sunset.

This is the ordinance as it was given by God. We are not free to begin earlier because of the way we see it.” 5 (footnote & endnote)

5 The Good News Magazine February, 1957, Vol. VI, No. 10, Article titled, “Prove God’s CALENDAR Correct!” (Page 6, 1st column, 5th paragraph)

(17) Question for HWA: “So, how does the new moon in the book of Colossians from the New Testament fit into all of this?”

Answer from HWA: “The month, according to God’s method of reckoning time, begins at the new moon (Gen. 1:14). We visually recognize the beginning of a new month by the first, thin crescent in the western sky just after sunset.” 7 (footnote & endnote)

The Worldwide Church of God takes note of the new moon just as God intends (Col. 2:16)—as the beginning of the month in His solar-lunar calendar, so we can know when to keep His Holy Days.” 7 (footnote & endnote)

7 The Good News Magazine February, 1982, Vol. XXIX, No. 2, Q & A Section, “What is a new moon? .…” (Page 13, 1st column, 3rd paragraph), (Page 13, 2nd column, 3rd paragraph)

(18) Question for HWA: “Can you summarize how all of these factors work together for a Biblical calendar?”

Answer from HWA: “… we have established the daily cycle beginning at sundown, the weekly cycle beginning at sundown following the Sabbath, the monthly cycle beginning with the new moon and the yearly cycle beginning in the spring with the first day of the month in which the early harvest would take place. The day, month and year are easy to follow by watching the sun in its daily path, the moon in its phases and the seasons as they progress. The signs in the heavens were intended for this purpose. The Sabbath is remembered by its weekly observance.” 1 (footnote & endnote)

1 The Good News Magazine March, 1953, Vol. III, No. 3, Article titled, “God’s Sacred Calendar” (Page 8, 2nd column, 2nd paragraph)

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Conclusion

Regardless of which calendar brethren follow, this should be a stunning revelation to all! It is clear that Herbert W. Armstrong taught that God’s calendar was intended to be an observation calendar. With irrefutable direct quotes, within documented Church of God literature as evidence, even the most teachable church leaders and brethren will not want to acknowledge this solid proof of what he taught from scripture.

God revealed much of this to HWA through scripture as early as 1940 3 (endnote), and it was taught through at least 1986 8 (endnote). This was part of “the faith which was once delivered”—forgotten and no longer taught in the main Churches of God, today. By fact-checking references and reading the church literature, it is clear that he taught this from scripture. Don’t believe this writer! Read the church literature and prove these quotes for yourself! (This cannot be denied, as detailed references are included in this paper.) Many will choose to ignore these documented facts, as their minds will not be able to comprehend the implications of what he actually taught. Even those who believe that Herbert Armstrong was an Apostle may be offended by his answers.

Why did he follow the calculated “Hebrew Calendar” while preaching the observation calendar from scripture? He thought today’s calculated “Hebrew Calendar” produced the exact same results as the observation calendar. It does not! Today’s calculated calendar is only an averaged calendar. It is independent of the true lunar cycle and its observation.

Herbert Armstrong’s answers to the interview questions do not describe how the calculated “Hebrew Calendar” determines the months in a year. The calculated “Hebrew Calendar” is not determined by the sighting of the first faint crescent, and that sighted crescent moon has no relevance to the calculated calendar. The first day of a calculated calendar month rarely falls on the day in which the first crescent is observed. The calculated calendar frequently places the start of its months one or two days prior to the first visible crescent new moon and is not even synchronized with the lunar cycle.

We have not been aware of this because of our overall lack of knowledge about the calendar doctrine followed for many years. This lack of knowledge runs from the leadership on down to the lay members. There has been such a lack of proper education on the calendar issues that most do not even know there is a difference between Herbert Armstrong’s teaching, from scripture, and the calculated “Hebrew Calendar” used today.

We’ve been taught down through the decades, and even today, that the calculated “Hebrew Calendar” places the Feast of Trumpets on the day of the New Moon, when it does not! As of 2015, the Feast of Trumpets of the calculated “Hebrew Calendar” has NOT fallen on the day of the first visible crescent new moon IN THE LAST 12 YEARS! It has fallen only twice (2009, 2013) on the day of the astronomical new moon (lunar conjunction), within that same period. This should be a shocking revelation to someone who claims that the Feast of Trumpets falls on the new moon—regardless of anyone’s

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definition of new moon. The calculated calendar simply does not deliver on that claim! Herbert Armstrong did not realize that the calculated “Hebrew Calendar” was not designed to place the Feast of Trumpets on the New Moon day. It is not designed to place the beginning of any month on the New Moon day, the conjunction, or the molad. It is an averaged calendar detached from any real lunar event.

This teaching of the observation calendar has been called a “spiritual virus,” “cancer,” or “disease” that is “infecting” the church, and yet, it was taught by Herbert Armstrong from “the oracles of God”—scripture. Be warned! If members within the main Church of God groups do indeed attempt to follow and teach exactly what he taught about this observation calendar, the leadership and brethren alike will persecute them. Some have been disfellowshipped from their Church of God organizations, as heretics, for writing papers supporting his teaching of the observation calendar! Brethren need to wonder just how close they have truly been to the “trunk of the tree,” if they are not following what Herbert Armstrong proved from scripture on this issue.

Much confusion has persisted in today’s sermons and literature, because HWA taught the details of two distinctly different calendars, simultaneously. He taught the two calendars as if they were the same, thinking the calculated “Hebrew Calendar” produced the same results as the calendar he found in scripture. However, the results of these two calendars often differ with each other! Within the same letters, articles, and sermons, Herbert Armstrong and other elders taught the observation calendar from scripture while training the brethren to use the calculated “Hebrew Calendar.” This faulty education of teaching one thing and following another has produced confusion for decades. That is why the calendar controversy continues to resurface and never goes away!

(Church literature references, endnotes, and links are on the following pages.)

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Endnotes

1 The Good News Magazine March, 1953, Vol. III, No. 3, Article titled, “God’s Sacred Calendar” by Kenneth Herrmann, Publisher and Editor: Herbert W. Armstrong (Radio Church of God), beginning with page 7—Sixteen selected quotes:

(Link—http://herbert-armstrong.org/Good News 1950s/Good News 1953 (Vol III No 03) Mar.pdf)

(1) The first evidence of God’s calendar is found in Genesis 1:14. The sun and moon are ‘for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and years.’(Page 7, 1st column, 3rd paragraph)

(2) The first unit of time revealed in the Bible is the day.(Page 7, 1st column, 6th paragraph)

(3) The day as revealed by God does not begin in the middle of the night but at sunset.(Page 7, 1st column, 6th paragraph)

(4) Completing six days of physical creation, God rested on the seventh day of this first week, blessed it and set it apart for holy use. This weekly cycle of six days of labor and a seventh devoted to our spiritual needs has never been broken and continues for us today.(Page 7, 2nd column, last paragraph)

(5) Concerning the spring month of Nisan or Abib, God said: ‘This month shall be unto you the beginning of months: it shall be the first month of the year to you.’ (Exodus 12:2). The first day of this month—which occurs at the beginning of spring—then would be the first day of the year.(Page 7-8, 3rd column, last paragraph)

(6) The first month in God’s sacred calendar isn’t January which begins in the middle of a dead winter.(Page 8, 1st column, 2nd paragraph)

(7) The word month comes from the word moon. In Hebrew the word for month when speaking of the calendar is the same as for new moon or moon. God’s months begin with the new moon.(Page 8, 1st column, 3rd paragraph)

(8) The observation of the new moon is to be made from Jerusalem, not from the North American continent.(Page 8, 1st column, 3rd paragraph)

(9) “More Evidence on the Month” (Subheading)

You can prove that each month began with the new moon by comparing Num. 28:11 with I Chronicles 23:31. In every instance the monthly offerings were made on the day of the new moon.(Page 8, 1st column, 4th paragraph)

(10) In the second year of their exodus from Egypt, God commanded Israel concerning the blowing of trumpets; ‘In the beginnings of your months, ye shall blow with the trumpets over your burnt offerings.’ (Num. 10:10). Concerning his holydays, he said, ‘In the seventh month, in the first day of the month, shall ye have a sabbath (rest), a memorial of blowing of trumpets, an holy convocation.’ (Lev. 23:24). In reference to this same day Psalms 81:3 states, ‘Blow up the trumpet in the new moon, in the time appointed, on our solemn feast day.’ There can be no doubt that the start of a new month is regulated by the moon. Each month began with a new moon.(Page 8, 1st column, 5th paragraph)

(11) The Passover, for instance, being the 14th day of God’s first month varies from about March 26th to April 22nd over a ten year period.(Page 8, 2nd column, 1st paragraph)

(12) Thus we have established the daily cycle beginning at sundown, the weekly cycle beginning at sundown following the Sabbath, the monthly cycle beginning with the new

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moon and the yearly cycle beginning in the spring with the first day of the month in which the early harvest would take place. The day, month and year are easy to follow by watching the sun in its daily path, the moon in its phases and the seasons as they progress. The

signs in the heavens were intended for this purpose. The Sabbath is remembered by its weekly observance.(Page 8, 2nd column, 2nd paragraph)

(13) The Passover had to be at the time of the early grain harvest for the high priest waves a sheaf of the new grain crop on the morrow after the Sabbath during the Feast of Unleavened Bread. ‘Keep this ordinance in his season from year to year.’ (Ex. 13: 10). No other grain could be cut until the wave sheaf was offered. (Check Ex. 23:14-17, Deut. 16:9-16 and Num. 28:2 also.)(Page 8, 2nd column, 5th paragraph)

(14) To keep the month in accord with the year, God intended that a 13th month be added in certain years.(Page 8, 2nd column, 6th paragraph)

(15) The appearance of the new moon in the western sky just after sunset is used to determine the beginning of a new month.(Page 8, 2nd column, last paragraph)

(16) At first observation was the chief method for the determination of the beginning of a new month or new year.(Page 10, 2nd column, 4th paragraph)

2 “GOD’S SACRED CALENDAR” 1974, Reprint Article, by Herbert W. Armstrong (Worldwide Church of God), Third column on page 1—Two selected quotes:

(Link—http://www.hwalibrary.com/cgi-bin/get/hwa.cgi?action=getspectopics&InfoID=1418477046)

(1) “God Ordained This Way” (Subheading)

Proof that the new moon begins the month is found by comparing Psalms 81:3 and I Chronicles 23:31 with Numbers 10:10; 28:11; 29:1 and Leviticus 23:24. The terms ‘beginning of the month’ and ‘new moon’ are used interchangeably.(Page 1, 3rd column, 3rd paragraph)

(2) The word month means ‘moon.’ A new month begins with a new moon. At first quarter the month is one quarter gone, at full moon half a month has passed.(Page 1, 3rd column, 4th paragraph)

3 Good News Letter, 1940, Article titled, “How to Figure Passover” by Herbert W. Armstrong (Radio Church of God)—Six selected quotes:

(Link—http://www.icogsfg.org/hwa-pass.html)

(1) 2) PROOF the Bible month is lunar; that is, each month begins with a new moon: By studying Numbers 28 and 29, we learn offerings were held DAILY (verses 3-4), WEEKLY on every Sabbath (verse 9), MONTHLY on the 1st day of each month (verse 11), and YEARLY on the annual holy days (verse 16 and on through chapter 29). Compare with I Chronicles 23:31; II Chronicles 2:4; 8:13; 31:3; etc., where the same sacrifices and meat and drink offerings are mentioned, and in each case the MONTHLY offerings are on the NEW MOON. Since Numbers 28:11 says this is in the ‘beginnings of your months,’ or the first day of each month, we have Bible proof the 1st day of each month is calculated by the New Moon.(Point 2 or 4th paragraph)

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(2) 3) The Bible YEAR is solar. This is proved by the festivals and holy days. A month is between 29 and 30 days. A 12-month year, or lunar year, is approximately 354 days, whereas a solar year is a little more than 365 days. Thus a lunar year is about 11 days less

than a solar year. If the Bible year were lunar, always 12 new moons, Passover would come about 11 days earlier each year. Thus, in about nine years it would come in the

MIDWINTER; in another 9 in the FALL, and a few years later Passover would come in the SUMMER.(Point 3 or 5th paragraph)

(3) 3) …Passover ALWAYS comes in the SPRING, at time of the early grain harvest. On the morrow after the Sabbath during Feast of Unleavened Bread, the priest waved the wave-sheaf, and none of the early Spring grain could be used until this was done, Leviticus 23.(Point 3 or 5th paragraph)

(4) 4) These facts prove there had to be an intercalary, or 13th, month ADDED to the year….(Point 4 or 6th paragraph)

(5) 4)… the ONLY POSSIBLE METHOD by which months can begin on new moons, and yet the solar year can be retained, is to add a 13th month every two or three years.(Point 4 or 6th paragraph)

(6) The new moon occurs, IN JERUSALEM…. However, God had the new moon observed by the naked eye….(Last paragraph)

4 The Good News Magazine February, 1957, Vol. VI, No. 2, Article titled, “Which is the Calendar Christ Used?” by Kenneth Herrmann, Publisher and Editor: Herbert W. Armstrong (Radio Church of God), beginning with page 5—Eight selected quotes:

(Link—http://herbert-armstrong.org/Good News 1950s/Good News 1957 (Vol VI No 02) Feb.pdf)

(1) “Evidence on the Month” (Subheading)

The word ‘month’ comes from the word moon. In Hebrew the word for month when speaking of the calendar is identical to that for new moon or moon. The observation of this first faint crescent of the new moon just after sundown was always made from Jerusalem. Word was then spread to the surrounding area that a new month (or moon) was beginning. GOD’S MONTHS begin with the new moon.(Page 5, 1st column, last paragraph)

(2) GOD’S MONTHS begin with the new moon. Yet because of certain special considerations they may begin a day or so later than the astronomical ‘new moon’ noted on many of our calendars today.(Page 5, 2nd column, 1st paragraph)

(3) The observation had to be made from Jerusalem and is stated in Jerusalem time….(Page 5, 2nd column, 1st paragraph)

(4) The seven to ten hours difference in time between Jerusalem and the part of the United States one lives in can make our own observations and estimations as to when we would want to begin a new month somewhat misleading.(Page 5, 2nd column, 1st paragraph)

(5) Compare these scriptures: ‘In the beginnings of your months, ye shall blow with the trumpets over your burnt offerings’ (Num. 10:10). Concerning one of His Holydays, God commanded, ‘In the seventh month, in the first day of the month, shall ye have a sabbath (rest), a memorial of blowing of trumpets, an holy convocation’ (Lev. 23:24). Then in reference to this same day Psalms 81:3 states, ‘Blow up the trumpet in the new moon, in

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the time appointed, on our solemn feast day. These leave no doubt that the start of a new month is to be regulated by the moon. Each new month begins with the discovery of the crescent of a new moon in the western sky just after sundown following the 29th or 30th day of a preceding month.(Page 5, 2nd column, 3rd paragraph)

(6) The months God gave average approximately 29½ days….(Page 5, 2nd column, 7th paragraph)

(7) To solve this, one calendar month in general has 30 days, the next 29.(Page 5, 3rd column, 3rd paragraph)

(8) “The Thirteenth Month” (Subheading)

Note Lev. 23:4, ‘These are the feasts of the LORD, even holy convocations, which ye shall proclaim in their seasons.’ They could not be allowed to wander through the seasons.(Page 5, 3rd column, 5th paragraph)

5 The Good News Magazine February, 1957, Vol. VI, No. 10, Article titled, “Prove God’s CALENDAR Correct!” by Kenneth Herrmann, Publisher and Editor: Herbert W. Armstrong (Radio Church of God), Page 5-6—Four selected quotes:

(Link—http://herbert-armstrong.org/Good News 1950s/Good News 1957 (Vol VI No 10) Oct.pdf)

(1) “How to Prove It” (Subheading)

Jerusalem was always the point from which the new moons were observed and sanctified. It was the Sanhedrin, the Supreme Court in Jerusalem, that determined when

the new moon was apparent. And it was their responsibility to notify the Jewish communities of the beginning of the months.(Page 5, 2nd column, 7th paragraph)

(2) “We Answer the Questions” (Subheading)

What are God’s instructions? If the people of Jerusalem, where God’s permanent headquarters are to be, cannot see this crescent of the moon following sunset, then the entire world east and west of that city must delay beginning the month till the following sunset.

This is the ordinance as it was given by God. We are not free to begin earlier because of the way we see it.(Page 6, 1st column, 5th paragraph)

(3) “Conjunction or Crescent” (Subheading)

Is the new moon noted on the Roman calendar or in an almanac or astronomy book the same term as the new moon on God’s Sacred Calendar? Not at all. The term “new moon” from these secular sources refers to the conjunction (or molad) of the sun and moon rather than the visible crescent….(Page 6, 2nd column, 7th paragraph)

(4) The astronomer’s “new moon” is the moment an eclipse of the sun might occur. (The moon is usually above or below the sun rather than in front of it. Thus eclipses do not occur at each of these “new moons”.) But remember that this conjunction occurs at least 6 hours before any observer anywhere can see the new moon crescent with his eyes.(Page 6, 2nd column, 8th paragraph)

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6 Youth Bible Lessons, Level 3, 1981, Special Feast Lesson, Fall Festival Edition, Editor in Chief: Herbert W. Armstrong (Worldwide Church of God—Y.E.S.), Two selected quotes:

(Link—http://www.herbert-armstrong.org/Youth%20Bible%20Lessons/L3_FALL.pdf)

(1) When the crescent shape of the moon appears at this time of year, we know it’s the beginning of God’s seventh month.(Page 2, 1st column, 3rd paragraph)

(2) Well, when that thin crescent shape called the new moon appears, the first of the fall feasts [Trumpets] has begun!(Page 2, 1st column, 4th paragraph)

7 The Good News Magazine February, 1982, Vol. XXIX, No. 2, Q & A Section, “What is a new moon? .…”, Editor in Chief: Herbert W. Armstrong (Worldwide Church of God), Three selected quotes:

(Link—http://herbert-armstrong.org/Good News 1980s/Good News 1982 (Prelim No 02) Feb.pdf)

(1) The month, according to God’s method of reckoning time, begins at the new moon (Gen. 1:14). We visually recognize the beginning of a new month by the first, thin crescent in the western sky just after sunset.(Page 13, 1st column, 3rd paragraph)

(2) The Bible commands only one assembly for the Church on a new moon. That is on the Festival of Trumpets, the first day of the seventh month.(Page 13, 1st column, last paragraph)

(3) The Worldwide Church of God takes note of the new moon just as God intends (Col. 2:16)—as the beginning of the month in His solar-lunar calendar, so we can know when to keep His Holy Days.(Page 13, 2nd column, 3rd paragraph)

8 God’s Sacred Calendar ’86-’87, (Worldwide Church of God), Second text page, starting in first column—Two selected quotes:

(Link—http://herbert-w-armstrong.com/books/books_pdf_web/Gods Sacred Calendar 86-87 (Prelim)_w.pdf)

(1) “God Ordained This Way” (Subheading)

The beginning of this month and of all God’s months basically correspond with the appearance of the first faint crescent of the new moon in the west just after sundown. (Traditionally observed from Palestine.) The astronomical new moon calculated for the United States is, in general, a day or two earlier.(Page 2, 1st column, 2nd paragraph)

(2) The word month means moon. A new month begins with a new moon. At first quarter the month is one quarter gone, at full moon half a month has passed.(Page 2, 1st column, 3rd paragraph)

13  The End

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